RDF Triple Store RDF Quad Store Single Model
RDBMS
(Graphs)
Single Model
RDBMS
(Tables)
Multi-Model
RDBMS
(RDF, Tables, and/or Graphs)
Entity Identifiers IRIs (open standard from IETF) IRIs (open standard from IETF) Proprietary Proprietary IRIs (open standard from IETF) and Proprietary
Entity Relationship Type (Relation) Modeling RDF Sentences/Statements (depictable as Directed Graphs) RDF Sentences/Statements (depictable as Directed Graphs) Proprietary (depictable as Directed Graphs) Tables Tables or RDF Sentences/Statements (depictable as Directed Graphs)
Entity Relationship Type (Relation) Structure subject→predicate→object 3-Tuples (or Triples) subject→predicate→object 3-Tuples (or Triples) associated with a Named Graph (Data Source Name or Internal Document/Page) Proprietary N-Tuples + a Relation Header N-Tuples + a Relation Header and/or subject→predicate→object 3-Tuples (or Triples) associated with a Named Graph (Data Source Name or Internal Document/Page)
Relation Representation Notation RDF-Turtle, RDF-NTriples, RDF-XML, JSON-LD, HTML+Microdata, RDFa RDF-Turtle, RDF-NTriples, RDF-XML, JSON-LD, HTML+Microdata, RDFa Proprietary CSV CSV and/or RDF-Turtle, RDF-NTriples, RDF-XML, JSON-LD, HTML+Microdata, RDFa RDF-Turtle, RDF-NTriples, RDF-XML, JSON-LD, HTML+Microdata
Declarative Query Language for Relation Definition RDF (open standard from W3C) (leveraging terms from a variety of shared Vocabularies and Ontologies including RDF basic Vocabulary, RDF Schema, OWL, and others), SPARQL (open standard from W3C) RDF (open standard from W3C) (leveraging terms from a variety of shared Vocabularies and Ontologies including RDF basic Vocabulary, RDF Schema, OWL, and others), SPARQL (open standard from W3C) Cypher, Gremlin, GraphQL, and other proprietary languages SQL (open standard from ANSI/ISO) SQL (open standard from ANSI/ISO) and/or RDF (open standard from W3C) (leveraging terms from a variety of shared Vocabularies and Ontologies including RDF basic Vocabulary, RDF Schema, OWL, and others), SPARQL (open standard from W3C), and R2RML (open standard from W3C) (for declaratively mapping Tabular Relations to RDF sentence/statement collections [or RDF Graphs])
Declarative Query Languages for Relation Manipulation SPARQL (open standard from W3C) SPARQL (open standard from W3C) Cypher, Gremlin, GraphQL, and other proprietary languages SQL (open standard from ANSI/ISO) SQL (open standard from ANSI/ISO) or SPARQL (open standard from W3C)
Reasoning & Inference Rules Language RIF (open standard from W3C), SWRL (W3C Member Submission), or SPARQL (open standard from W3C) (leveraging terms from SPIN or SHACL vocabularies) RIF (open standard from W3C), SWRL (W3C Member Submission), or SPARQL (open standard from W3C) (leveraging terms from SPIN or SHACL vocabularies) Unknown Stored Procedures (SQL/PSM open standard from ANSI/ISO) Stored Procedures (SQL/PSM open standard from ANSI/ISO) or RIF (open standard from W3C), SWRL (W3C Member Submission), or SPARQL (open standard from W3C) (leveraging terms from SPIN or SHACL vocabularies)
Database Connectivity Application Programming Interface (API) SPARQL Query Protocol (open standard from W3C) SPARQL Query Protocol (open standard from W3C) Proprietary ODBC and JDBC (both open standard) ODBC, JDBC (both open standard), and/or SPARQL Query Protocol
Transaction Properties Lacks ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) semantics (i.e., ACID is not part of SPARQL) Lacks ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) semantics (i.e., ACID is not part of SPARQL) Proprietary ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) semantics (i.e., ACID is built into SQL) ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) semantics (i.e., ACID is built into SQL and into SQL+SPARQL fusions/hybrids such as SPASQL)
Security Coarse-grained Role-based Access Controls (RBAC) Coarse-grained Role-based Access Controls (RBAC) Unknown Coarse-grained Role-based Access Controls (RBAC) Coarse-grained Role-based Access Controls (RBAC) and Fine-grained Attribute-based Access Controls (ABAC)
Standardized Benchmarks Lehigh University Benchmark (LUBM); Linked Data Benchmark Council (LDBC) Social-Networking Benchmark (SNB) and/or Semantic Publishing Benchmark (SPB); Berlin SPARQL Benchmark (BSBM); Project Hobbit Faceted-Browsing Benchmark and/or Data Storage Benchmark (DSB) Lehigh University Benchmark (LUBM); Linked Data Benchmark Council (LDBC) Social-Networking Benchmark (SNB) and/or Semantic Publishing Benchmark (SPB); Berlin SPARQL Benchmark (BSBM); Project Hobbit Faceted-Browsing Benchmark and/or Data Storage Benchmark (DSB) Unknown TPC-A, TPC-C, and/or TPC-H TPC-A, TPC-C, TPC-H; and/or Lehigh University Benchmark (LUBM); Linked Data Benchmark Council (LDBC) Social-Networking Benchmark (SNB) and/or Semantic Publishing Benchmark (SPB); Berlin SPARQL Benchmark (BSBM), Project Hobbit Faceted-Browsing Benchmark and/or Data Storage Benchmark (DSB)