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Филадельфийская железнодорожная катастрофа произошла 31 июля 1815 года в графстве Дарем (Англия) близ деревни Филадельфия, когда из-за взрыва паровоза погибло 13 или 16 человек. Первый в мире зафиксированный взрыв котла, а также первая в мире железнодорожная катастрофа. Катастрофа произошла во время демонстрации паровоза «Механический путешественник», созданного под руководством инженера Уильяма Брунтона. На предыдущих испытаниях паровоз развивал скорость около 4 км/ч, однако инженер выразил надежду, что он сумеет поднять скорость за счёт поднятия давления пара в котле. При скоплении народа в ходе испытательной поездки на паровозе взорвался котёл, который полностью уничтожил паровоз и убил на месте нескольких наблюдателей. В некоторых источниках эту катастрофу не относят к железнодорожным, так как она произошла не на магистральной железной дороге. Ряд источников первой жертвой на железной дороге называют Уильяма Хаскиссона, погибшего в 1830 году. По количеству жертв эта катастрофа считалась крупнейшей до версальских событий 1842 года. В Великобритании по количеству жертв её превзошла только железнодорожная катастрофа в Клейтонском туннеле, случившаяся в 1861 году. The 1815 Philadelphia train accident occurred on 31 July 1815, in Philadelphia, County Durham, England, when an early experimental railway locomotive, Brunton's Mechanical Traveller, suffered a boiler explosion. This engine, also known as the Steam Horse, ran on four wheels but was pushed by mechanical feet. This was both the first recorded boiler explosion and the first railway accident causing major loss of life with at least 13 people killed (sources differ). The accident is not included in many texts because it was on an industrial waggonway or plateway, rather than a public railway. Nevertheless, it predated William Huskisson's fatal accident at Parkside by 15 years, and the death toll was not exceeded by any railway accident until 1842 worldwide (see Versailles train crash), and 1861 in the UK (Clayton Tunnel). It also killed more people than any other UK railway boiler explosion of all time, though 26 were killed in a 1912 boiler explosion in San Antonio, USA. Most boiler explosions caused severe mechanical damage but often only the locomotive crew suffered physically; however, Brunton's locomotive was surrounded at the time by a crowd of curious sightseers, who formed the majority of the victims. The first high-pressure steam locomotive, Trevithick's Penydarren engine, had only appeared 11 years earlier in 1804, and engineering understanding of the forces and safety risks involved was still primitive.
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1815
rdfs:comment
Филадельфийская железнодорожная катастрофа произошла 31 июля 1815 года в графстве Дарем (Англия) близ деревни Филадельфия, когда из-за взрыва паровоза погибло 13 или 16 человек. Первый в мире зафиксированный взрыв котла, а также первая в мире железнодорожная катастрофа. В некоторых источниках эту катастрофу не относят к железнодорожным, так как она произошла не на магистральной железной дороге. Ряд источников первой жертвой на железной дороге называют Уильяма Хаскиссона, погибшего в 1830 году. The 1815 Philadelphia train accident occurred on 31 July 1815, in Philadelphia, County Durham, England, when an early experimental railway locomotive, Brunton's Mechanical Traveller, suffered a boiler explosion. This engine, also known as the Steam Horse, ran on four wheels but was pushed by mechanical feet. This was both the first recorded boiler explosion and the first railway accident causing major loss of life with at least 13 people killed (sources differ).
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1815 Philadelphia train accident Железнодорожная катастрофа 1815 года
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