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dbpedia-owl:abstract
通信衛星(つうしんえいせい、(英: communications satellite)とは、マイクロ波帯の電波を用いた無線通信を目的として、宇宙空間に打ち上げられた人工衛星である。CSやCOMSAT(コムサット)などと略される。その出力が大きく、使用目的が人工衛星から直接放送するものを放送衛星(BSまたはDBS)という。 通信衛星を用いた放送サービスについては「衛星放送」を参照 A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunication signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. As of 1 January 2021, there are 2,224 communications satellites in Earth orbit. Most communications satellites are in geostationary orbit 22,236 miles (35,785 km) above the equator, so that the satellite appears stationary at the same point in the sky; therefore the satellite dish antennas of ground stations can be aimed permanently at that spot and do not have to move to track the satellite. The high frequency radio waves used for telecommunications links travel by line of sight and so are obstructed by the curve of the Earth. The purpose of communications satellites is to relay the signal around the curve of the Earth allowing communication between widely separated geographical points. Communications satellites use a wide range of radio and microwave frequencies. To avoid signal interference, international organizations have regulations for which frequency ranges or "bands" certain organizations are allowed to use. This allocation of bands minimizes the risk of signal interference. Komunikaj satelitoj (antaŭ novaĵaj aŭ telefonaj satelitoj) estas senpilotaj artefaritaj satelitoj, kiuj cirkulas en la orbito de la tero kaj ebligas sendi informojn al ĉiu punkto de la planedo - la informoj senditaj estas ĝenerale televido- kaj radio-programoj, interkomputile senditaj datumaroj kaj telefonaj interparoloj. Ekzistas ŝtataj kaj komercaj satelitoj, sed ankaŭ la reto OSCAR de private vivtenataj satelitoj. Los satélites de comunicaciones son un medio para emitir señales de radio y televisión desde unas zonas de la Tierra hasta otras, ya que se utilizan como enormes antenas suspendidas del cielo. Las frecuencias que manejan son elevadas, en el rango de los GHz. La elevada direccionalidad de las antenas utilizadas permite "alumbrar" zonas concretas de la Tierra. El primer satélite de comunicaciones, el Telstar 1, se puso en órbita el 10 de julio en 1962,​ teniendo lugar la primera transmisión de televisión vía satélite ese mismo año. Satelit komunikasi adalah sebuah satelit buatan yang ditempatkan di angkasa dengan tujuan telekomunikasi. Satelit komunikasi modern menggunakan orbit geosynchronous, orbit atau orbit Bumi rendah. Untuk pelayanan tetap, satelit komunikasi menyediakan sebuah teknologi tambahan bagi optik fiber. Untuk aplikasi bergerak, seperti komunikasi ke kapal laut dan pesawat terbang, di mana aplikasi teknologi lain, seperti kabel, tidak praktis atau tidak mungkin. 通訊卫星(英語:Communications Satellite,简称「CS」)是一种通过中繼器来传递和放大无线电通信信号的卫星,它建立了地面上发射站与接收站之间的信息通道。通信卫星可用于电视、电话、广播、网络和军事领域。地球轨道上有2,000多颗通信卫星,它们由私人和政府机构使用。 无线电通信使用电磁波来传递信号,这些波是直线传播的,因此它们会被地球的弯曲表面挡住。通信卫星的目的是,通过传递地球表面的信号来实现地面远距离的通信。通信卫星使用的无线电和微波的频带较宽。为避免信号干扰,国际组织制定了监管规则来分配各个组织可以使用的频率范围或“频带”。这样的分配降低了信号干扰的风险 。 卫星轨道离地很高,天线波束能覆盖地球广大面积,且电波传播不受地形限制,能实现地面远距离通讯。卫星装有由接收和发射设备组成的转发器,将收到的信号经放大、移频后发射给地面;轨道高度和倾角可有多种,但常用的是对地静止轨道;如果用3-4颗对地静止轨道上的通讯卫星组网,可以实现全球实时通讯;这种卫星除了具有人造卫星一般的分系统设备外,还装有通讯转发器、对地姿态稳定控制、对地定向天线、卫星位置保持等分系统设备。 通訊衛星是為了補足海底電纜通信的不足,通常用於移动通信。例如船隻或飛機等遠離陸地的交通工具,無法使用有線通訊時,便需要通訊衛星。 Els satèl·lits artificials de comunicacions són un mitjà molt apte per emetre senyals de ràdio en zones àmplies o poc desenvolupades, ja que poden utilitzar-se com enormes antenes suspeses del cel. Atès que no hi ha problema de visió directa es solen utilitzar freqüències elevades en el rang dels GHz que són més immunes a les interferències, a més, l'elevada direccionalitat de les ones a aquestes freqüències permet "donar a llum" zones concretes de la Terra. El primer satèl·lit de comunicacions, el Telstar 1, es va posar en òrbita el 1962. Telekomunikační družice jsou umělé družice (satelity) Země určené pro telekomunikace. Používají se pro šíření televizního vysílání, přenos telefonních hovorů, přenos dat, pro satelitní telefony a další účely. Do kosmu je vynášejí buď raketoplány nebo rakety. Oběžná dráha telekomunikačních družic zavisí na jejich určení; pro televizní vysílání pro individuální uživatele se používají geostacionární dráhy – tzn. že družice se stále vznášejí nad stejným místem, takže signál z nich lze přijímat pevnou parabolickou anténou. Pro satelitní telefony se používají jak geostacionární družice, tak družice na nízké dráze, kterých musí být pro nepřetržité pokrytí několik desítek. Telekomunikační družice se obvykle skládají ze tří hlavních částí. První částí jsou sluneční panely tvořené fotovoltaickými články (sluneční baterie), které družici zásobují elektřinou vyrobenou ze slunečního záření. Díky nim jsou některé družice viditelné ze Země – vypadají jako malé hvězdy. Druhá část je vlastní tělo družice, které obsahuje přijímač a vysílač. Třetí částí je jedna nebo více antén. Samotný přenos signálu probíhá následovně: Pozemní stanoviště vyšle signál k družici (uplink), ta ho transponuje na jiný kmitočet, zesílí a pošle ho zpět k Zemi (downlink). Některé družice jsou svými vysílacími prostředky schopny přenášet signál i mezi sebou. Kommunikationssatelliten (auch Nachrichten- oder Fernmeldesatelliten) sind unbemannte künstliche Satelliten, die die Erde umkreisen und Informations- bzw. Datenübertragung in bestimmten Gebieten der Erdoberfläche ermöglichen. Ihre Umlaufbahnen sind relativ hoch, um weite Gebiete überdecken zu können. Am häufigsten sind geostationäre Satelliten, welche vor allem zur Übertragung von Fernseh- und Rundfunkprogrammen dienen (siehe auch Fernsehsatellit). Weitere Anwendungen sind die Satellitenkommunikation, die digitale Datenübertragung oder großräumiger Fernsprechverkehr. Neben den meist von staatlichen und kommerziellen Trägern unterhaltenen Satelliten gibt es auch Amateurfunksatelliten. En kommunikationssatellit är en konstgjord satellit som befinner sig i en omloppsbana kring jorden och som används för att förmedla telekommunikation mellan stationer på marken. De används för television, telefoni, radio och datakommunikation. För vissa system är banan geostationär, till exempel i och . I Molnijasystemet är banan starkt elliptisk och icke-stationär, men med två varv per dygn. Iridium är exempel på ett system med många lågflygande satelliter i banor, som varken är geostationära eller geosynkrona. Satelita telekomunikacyjny – satelita sztuczny umożliwiający teletransmisję sygnałów radiowych i telewizyjnych między naziemnymi stacjami. Спу́тник свя́зи — искусственный спутник Земли, космический аппарат специализированный для ретрансляции радиосигнала между точками на поверхности Земли, не имеющими видимости прямого типа. Спутник связи принимает спектр частот с сигналами передающих наземных станций, направленных на него, (как правило) переносит его на другую часть спектра, усиливает и излучает обратно на Землю. Зона, в которой возможен прием спутникового сигнала, называется зоной покрытия. Зона покрытия определяется положением на орбите, ориентацией и техническими характеристиками спутника. Применяя различные модуляции, через спутник можно передавать как информацию цифрового типа, так и аналоговые сигналы. Большинство спутников имеют несколько передатчиков — транспондеров, каждый из которых покрывает некоторую полосу частот. Также транспондеры различаются поляризацией, частотным диапазоном, с которыми они работают, и геометрией передающей антенны. Спутники размещаются в трёх зонах, обусловленных существованием поясов Ван Аллена: * Геостационарные спутники находятся над Землёй на высоте 35786 км * средневысотные спутники занимают диапазон от 5000 до 15000 километров (для покрытия всей земной поверхности таких спутников требуется около 10). Такие спутники нашли применение в системах глобального позиционирования GPS/ГЛОНАСС и др. * низкоорбитальные спутники, которых для покрытия связью всей Земли нужно не менее пятидесяти. Satellitenkommunikation ist die über einen Satelliten hergestellte bidirektionale Telekommunikation zwischen zwei Bodenstationen. Sie verläuft ähnlich dem Mobilfunk von einem Sender zum Empfangsgerät und zurück, wobei die Durchmesser der Sende-/Empfangsantennen derzeit zwischen etwa 75 cm und bis zu 32 Meter liegen. Zwar laufen auch Dienste wie der Satellitenrundfunk (Fernsehen und Hörfunk) oder militärische und spionagetechnische Kommunikation über Satelliten. Doch wird unter Satellitenkommunikation vornehmlich die Individualkommunikation über Nachrichtensatelliten verstanden. Für Steuerungsaufgaben kommuniziert jeder Satellit auch mit einer Kontrollstation am Boden. Um satélite de comunicação (algumas vezes, abreviado para comsat, na língua inglesa é um satélite artificial para fins de telecomunicações. Os modernos satélites de comunicação usam órbitas geoestacionárias, órbitas Molniya ou baixas órbitas polares. O satélite cria um canal de comunicação entre uma fonte transmissora e outra receptora de rádio em diferentes locais do planeta Terra. Comunicações por satélites são utilizadas para a televisão, telefone, rádio, internet e aplicações militares. Há mais de 2 000 satélites de comunicações em órbita da Terra, usados tanto por organizações privadas quanto por governamentais. Os satélites de comunicação oferecem uma tecnologia complementar àquela das fibras óticas em cabos submarinos de comunicação. Eles também são usados nas comunicações com navios e aviões, o que não pode ser feito por outras tecnologias, tais como a transmissão a cabo. A comunicação sem fio usa ondas eletromagnéticas para transportar sinais. Estas ondas requerem linhas de visão, e são, portanto, obstruídas pela curvatura da Terra. A finalidade de satélites de comunicações é retransmitir o sinal em torno da curva da Terra, permitindo a comunicação entre pontos amplamente separados. Satélites de comunicações usam uma ampla gama de frequências de rádio e micro-ondas. Para evitar interferências de sinal, as organizações internacionais têm regulamentos que estabelecem quais faixas de frequência ou bandas as organizações estão autorizadas a usar. Esta alocação de bandas minimiza o risco de interferência de sinal. Τηλεπικοινωνιακός δορυφόρος ονομάζεται ο μη επανδρωμένος τεχνητός δορυφόρος (unmanned artificial satellite), μέσω του οποίου παρέχονται υπηρεσίες μεγάλων αποστάσεων, όπως τηλεοπτικής και ραδιοφωνικής μετάδοσης, τηλεφωνικών επικοινωνιών και συνδέσεων ηλεκτρονικών υπολογιστών. Οι δορυφόροι έχουν τη μοναδική δυνατότητα να παρέχουν κάλυψη μεγάλων γεωγραφικών περιοχών και να διασυνδέουν μακρινούς και δυσπρόσιτους τηλεπικοινωνιακούς κόμβους και γι' αυτό τα δορυφορικά δίκτυα αποτελούν σήμερα αναπόσπαστο τμήμα των περισσότερων τηλεπικοινωνιακών συστημάτων. Τις τελευταίες δεκαετίες η τεχνολογία των δορυφορικών συστημάτων συνεχώς προοδεύει και η χρήση για επικοινωνίες μεγάλων αποστάσεων αναπτύσσεται ταχύτατα. Σήμερα, η εξοικείωση των ηλεκτρονικών μηχανικών με τη , τις δορυφορικές επικοινωνίες και τις δορυφορικές ζεύξεις καθίσταται αναγκαία, καθώς οι δορυφορικές τηλεπικοινωνίες αναμένεται να παίζουν συνεχώς μεγαλύτερο ρόλο στα σύγχρονα τηλεπικοινωνιακά συστήματα. Οι δορυφόροι έχουν προωθήσει σημαντικά την επικοινωνία με την δημιουργία παγκόσμιων τηλεφωνικών συνδέσεων, ενώ χάρη σε αυτούς γίνονται εφικτές ραδιοφωνικές και τηλεοπτικές μεταδόσεις σε πραγματικό χρόνο. Ένας δορυφόρος λαμβάνει σήμα μικροκυμάτων από έναν (uplink), κατόπιν ενισχύει και αναμεταδίδει το σήμα σε έναν σταθμό λήψης στη γη σε διαφορετική συχνότητα (η κατιούσα σύνδεση). Ένας δορυφόρος επικοινωνίας τοποθετείται σε γεωσύγχρονη τροχιά, πράγμα που σημαίνει ότι τίθεται σε τροχιά με την ίδια ταχύτητα με την οποία περιστρέφεται η Γη. Ο δορυφόρος μένει στην ίδια θέση σχετικά με την επιφάνεια της Γης, έτσι ώστε ο σταθμός αναμετάδοσης δεν θα χάσει ποτέ την επαφή με τον δέκτη. Супутник зв'язку — штучний супутник Землі, спеціалізований для ретрансляції радіосигналу між точками на поверхні землі, що не мають прямої видимості. Супутник зв'язку, приймає спектр частот з сигналами наземних станцій, спрямованих на нього, посилює і випромінює назад на Землю. Зона, в якій можливий прийом супутникового сигналу, називається . Зона покриття визначається положенням на орбіті, орієнтацією і технічними характеристиками супутника. Застосовуючи різні модуляції, через супутник можна передавати як цифрову інформацію, так і аналогові сигнали. Більшість супутників мають кілька радіопередавачів - транспондерів, кожен з яких покриває певну смугу частот. Також, транспондери розрізняються поляризацією і діапазоном (C або K u ) з якими вони працюють. Супутники розміщуються в трьох зонах, обумовлених існуванням поясів Ван Аллена. геостаціонарні супутники підносяться над Землею на висоті 35786 км, середньовисотні супутники займають діапазон від 5000 до 15000 кілометрів, для покриття всієї земної поверхні таких супутників потрібно близько 10, такі супутники знайшли застосування в системі GPS; завершують класифікацію низькоорбітальні супутники, яких для покриття зв'язком всієї Землі потрібно не менше п'ятдесяти. Le telecomunicazioni satellitari sono una forma di telecomunicazioni wireless a radiofrequenza per la comunicazione a distanza di informazione attraverso collegamenti radio satellitari fra stazioni ricetrasmittenti a terra e satelliti artificiali in orbita sotto forma di ponti radio satellitari, radiodiffusioni, telediffusioni, reti di telecomunicazioni e sistemi di radiolocalizzazione e navigazione. Questi sistemi, resi possibili dalla nascita e dallo sviluppo delle tecnologie di lancio (vedi razzo a partire dalla seconda metà del XX secolo, rappresentano spesso l'unica soluzione applicabile in mancanza di infrastrutture terrestri o di difficile dislocazione e dal costo complessivo inferiore rispetto alla realizzazione di sistemi di comunicazione terrestri equivalenti, trovando oggi ampia applicazione nel campo delle telecomunicazioni (telefonia, televisione e telematica, nella navigazione marittima, aerea e terrestre, nel telerilevamento e in campo militare. القمر الصناعي للاتصالات (يختصر أحيانا إلى ساتكوم - Satcom) وهو قمر صناعي متموقع في الفضاء لأغراض الاتصالات. يقوم القمر الاصطناعي للاتصالات بتبديل وتوجيه إشارات الاتصالات اللاسلكية عبر جهاز إرسال - مجيب؛ حيث ينشئ قناة اتصال بين مرسل وجهاز استقبال في مواقع مختلفة على الأرض. تستخدم أقمار الاتصالات للتلفزيون والهاتف والراديو والإنترنت والتطبيقات العسكرية. وهناك أكثر من 2000 قمر للاتصالات في مدار الأرض، وتستخدمها كل من المنظمات الخاصة والحكومية.كما هو معروف، يستخدم الاتصال اللاسلكي الموجات الكهرومغناطيسية لنقل الإشارات ولكن هذه الاشارات تتطلب خط رؤية أي عدم إعاقتها بواسطة انحناء الأرض فكان الحل باستخدام الأقمار الصناعية لترحيل الإشارة حول منحنى الأرض، مما يسمح بالاتصال بين النقاط المنفصلة على نطاق واسع. تستخدم أقمار الاتصالات نطاقًا واسعًا من ترددات الراديو والميكروويف. لتجنب تدخل الإشارة، عملت المنظمات الدولية المتخصصة لوائح لتنظيم استخدام نطاقات التردد. تخصيص النطاقات هذا هو ما يقلل من خطر تداخل الإشارة. Een communicatiesatelliet is een kunstmaan die voor telecommunicatiedoeleinden wordt gebruikt. Signalen worden verzonden via krachtige zendantennes op aarde. Deze worden in de satelliet versterkt en vervolgens teruggezonden naar de aarde. De apparatuur in de satelliet heeft elektriciteit nodig, die door zonnepanelen wordt opgewekt. Kleine stuwraketjes houden de satelliet in positie, zodat de antennes op de aarde gericht blijven. Het gebruik van satellieten voor telecommunicatie is al aan het einde van de jaren 40 van de 20e eeuw voorgesteld.Met de lancering van de Spoetnik 1 door de Sovjet-Unie in 1957 begonnen de eerste toepassingen in de ruimte.De AT&T Echo I (1960) en de (1964) waren niet meer dan grote en met reflecterende folie beklede ballonnen die, zwevend in de ruimte, radiosignalen reflecteerden. Er waren geen batterijen die leeg konden raken en ze vereisten geen bepaalde frequentie voor de "uplink". De Echo's waren in een zeer lage baan, zodat ze zichtbaar waren voor de gedurende een paar minuten per keer. Later werden communicatiesatellieten met radiorelais uitgerust. Een signaal dat op de ontvangerfrequentie werd ontvangen, werd direct doorgezonden op de zenderfrequentie van de satelliet. In 1962 ontwikkelde Bell Laboratories Telstar, de eerste communicatiesatelliet voor commercieel gebruik. De Telstar-satelliet was een vroeg voorbeeld van een satelliet die was uitgerust met een eenvoudig relaisstation. Dankzij satellieten konden voor het eerst trans-Atlantische televisie-uitzendingen plaatsvinden. De tot dan toe gebruikte trans-Atlantische kabels hadden daarvoor een te beperkte bandbreedte. Un satellite de télécommunications est un satellite artificiel placé dans l'espace pour des besoins de télécommunications. Selon le besoin, il circule sur une orbite géostationnaire, une orbite terrestre basse ou une orbite de Molnia d’où il relaie le signal émis par des stations émettrices vers des stations réceptrices. Les télécommunications par satellite constituent la première application commerciale de l'ère spatiale avec le lancement d'un premier satellite opérationnel (Intelsat I) en 1965. Développé initialement pour les télécommunications téléphoniques longue distance à une époque où seuls les câbles sous-marins permettaient le transport à longue distance de la voix depuis le milieu du XXe siècle, il a trouvé depuis d'autres applications. Le gros de l'activité concerne la diffusion de programmes de télévision. Pour des services fixes, les satellites de communications apportent une technologie complémentaire à la fibre optique. Ils sont également utilisés pour des applications mobiles, comme des communications vers les navires ou les avions. Le développement des télécommunications spatiales est confié initialement à des organismes internationaux (Intelsat et Inmarsat). Les progrès techniques et la forte croissance de l'activité permettent l'émergence dans les années 1970 de nombreuses sociétés d'envergure régionale. Le secteur des télécommunications spatiales fait vivre une poignée de constructeurs de satellites qui se partagent un marché relativement stable d'une vingtaine de satellites géostationnaires par an, et plusieurs dizaines d'opérateurs de satellites.
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通信衛星(つうしんえいせい、(英: communications satellite)とは、マイクロ波帯の電波を用いた無線通信を目的として、宇宙空間に打ち上げられた人工衛星である。CSやCOMSAT(コムサット)などと略される。その出力が大きく、使用目的が人工衛星から直接放送するものを放送衛星(BSまたはDBS)という。 通信衛星を用いた放送サービスについては「衛星放送」を参照 Satelita telekomunikacyjny – satelita sztuczny umożliwiający teletransmisję sygnałów radiowych i telewizyjnych między naziemnymi stacjami. القمر الصناعي للاتصالات (يختصر أحيانا إلى ساتكوم - Satcom) وهو قمر صناعي متموقع في الفضاء لأغراض الاتصالات. يقوم القمر الاصطناعي للاتصالات بتبديل وتوجيه إشارات الاتصالات اللاسلكية عبر جهاز إرسال - مجيب؛ حيث ينشئ قناة اتصال بين مرسل وجهاز استقبال في مواقع مختلفة على الأرض. تستخدم أقمار الاتصالات للتلفزيون والهاتف والراديو والإنترنت والتطبيقات العسكرية. وهناك أكثر من 2000 قمر للاتصالات في مدار الأرض، وتستخدمها كل من المنظمات الخاصة والحكومية.كما هو معروف، يستخدم الاتصال اللاسلكي الموجات الكهرومغناطيسية لنقل الإشارات ولكن هذه الاشارات تتطلب خط رؤية أي عدم إعاقتها بواسطة انحناء الأرض فكان الحل باستخدام الأقمار الصناعية لترحيل الإشارة حول منحنى الأرض، مما يسمح بالاتصال بين النقاط المنفصلة على نطاق واسع. تستخدم أقمار الاتصالات نطاقًا واسعًا من ترددات الراديو والميكروويف. لتجنب تدخل الإشارة، عملت Супутник зв'язку — штучний супутник Землі, спеціалізований для ретрансляції радіосигналу між точками на поверхні землі, що не мають прямої видимості. Супутник зв'язку, приймає спектр частот з сигналами наземних станцій, спрямованих на нього, посилює і випромінює назад на Землю. Зона, в якій можливий прийом супутникового сигналу, називається . Зона покриття визначається положенням на орбіті, орієнтацією і технічними характеристиками супутника. Застосовуючи різні модуляції, через супутник можна передавати як цифрову інформацію, так і аналогові сигнали. Спу́тник свя́зи — искусственный спутник Земли, космический аппарат специализированный для ретрансляции радиосигнала между точками на поверхности Земли, не имеющими видимости прямого типа. Спутник связи принимает спектр частот с сигналами передающих наземных станций, направленных на него, (как правило) переносит его на другую часть спектра, усиливает и излучает обратно на Землю. Зона, в которой возможен прием спутникового сигнала, называется зоной покрытия. Зона покрытия определяется положением на орбите, ориентацией и техническими характеристиками спутника. Een communicatiesatelliet is een kunstmaan die voor telecommunicatiedoeleinden wordt gebruikt. Signalen worden verzonden via krachtige zendantennes op aarde. Deze worden in de satelliet versterkt en vervolgens teruggezonden naar de aarde. De apparatuur in de satelliet heeft elektriciteit nodig, die door zonnepanelen wordt opgewekt. Kleine stuwraketjes houden de satelliet in positie, zodat de antennes op de aarde gericht blijven. Satelit komunikasi adalah sebuah satelit buatan yang ditempatkan di angkasa dengan tujuan telekomunikasi. Satelit komunikasi modern menggunakan orbit geosynchronous, orbit atau orbit Bumi rendah. Untuk pelayanan tetap, satelit komunikasi menyediakan sebuah teknologi tambahan bagi optik fiber. Untuk aplikasi bergerak, seperti komunikasi ke kapal laut dan pesawat terbang, di mana aplikasi teknologi lain, seperti kabel, tidak praktis atau tidak mungkin. En kommunikationssatellit är en konstgjord satellit som befinner sig i en omloppsbana kring jorden och som används för att förmedla telekommunikation mellan stationer på marken. De används för television, telefoni, radio och datakommunikation. För vissa system är banan geostationär, till exempel i och . I Molnijasystemet är banan starkt elliptisk och icke-stationär, men med två varv per dygn. Iridium är exempel på ett system med många lågflygande satelliter i banor, som varken är geostationära eller geosynkrona. Satellitenkommunikation ist die über einen Satelliten hergestellte bidirektionale Telekommunikation zwischen zwei Bodenstationen. Sie verläuft ähnlich dem Mobilfunk von einem Sender zum Empfangsgerät und zurück, wobei die Durchmesser der Sende-/Empfangsantennen derzeit zwischen etwa 75 cm und bis zu 32 Meter liegen. Zwar laufen auch Dienste wie der Satellitenrundfunk (Fernsehen und Hörfunk) oder militärische und spionagetechnische Kommunikation über Satelliten. Doch wird unter Satellitenkommunikation vornehmlich die Individualkommunikation über Nachrichtensatelliten verstanden. A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunication signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. As of 1 January 2021, there are 2,224 communications satellites in Earth orbit. Most communications satellites are in geostationary orbit 22,236 miles (35,785 km) above the equator, so that the satellite appears stationary at the same point in the sky; therefore the satellite dish antennas of ground stations can be aimed permanently at that spot and do not have to move to track the satellite. Komunikaj satelitoj (antaŭ novaĵaj aŭ telefonaj satelitoj) estas senpilotaj artefaritaj satelitoj, kiuj cirkulas en la orbito de la tero kaj ebligas sendi informojn al ĉiu punkto de la planedo - la informoj senditaj estas ĝenerale televido- kaj radio-programoj, interkomputile senditaj datumaroj kaj telefonaj interparoloj. Ekzistas ŝtataj kaj komercaj satelitoj, sed ankaŭ la reto OSCAR de private vivtenataj satelitoj. Τηλεπικοινωνιακός δορυφόρος ονομάζεται ο μη επανδρωμένος τεχνητός δορυφόρος (unmanned artificial satellite), μέσω του οποίου παρέχονται υπηρεσίες μεγάλων αποστάσεων, όπως τηλεοπτικής και ραδιοφωνικής μετάδοσης, τηλεφωνικών επικοινωνιών και συνδέσεων ηλεκτρονικών υπολογιστών. 通訊卫星(英語:Communications Satellite,简称「CS」)是一种通过中繼器来传递和放大无线电通信信号的卫星,它建立了地面上发射站与接收站之间的信息通道。通信卫星可用于电视、电话、广播、网络和军事领域。地球轨道上有2,000多颗通信卫星,它们由私人和政府机构使用。 无线电通信使用电磁波来传递信号,这些波是直线传播的,因此它们会被地球的弯曲表面挡住。通信卫星的目的是,通过传递地球表面的信号来实现地面远距离的通信。通信卫星使用的无线电和微波的频带较宽。为避免信号干扰,国际组织制定了监管规则来分配各个组织可以使用的频率范围或“频带”。这样的分配降低了信号干扰的风险 。 卫星轨道离地很高,天线波束能覆盖地球广大面积,且电波传播不受地形限制,能实现地面远距离通讯。卫星装有由接收和发射设备组成的转发器,将收到的信号经放大、移频后发射给地面;轨道高度和倾角可有多种,但常用的是对地静止轨道;如果用3-4颗对地静止轨道上的通讯卫星组网,可以实现全球实时通讯;这种卫星除了具有人造卫星一般的分系统设备外,还装有通讯转发器、对地姿态稳定控制、对地定向天线、卫星位置保持等分系统设备。 通訊衛星是為了補足海底電纜通信的不足,通常用於移动通信。例如船隻或飛機等遠離陸地的交通工具,無法使用有線通訊時,便需要通訊衛星。 Un satellite de télécommunications est un satellite artificiel placé dans l'espace pour des besoins de télécommunications. Selon le besoin, il circule sur une orbite géostationnaire, une orbite terrestre basse ou une orbite de Molnia d’où il relaie le signal émis par des stations émettrices vers des stations réceptrices. Les télécommunications par satellite constituent la première application commerciale de l'ère spatiale avec le lancement d'un premier satellite opérationnel (Intelsat I) en 1965. Développé initialement pour les télécommunications téléphoniques longue distance à une époque où seuls les câbles sous-marins permettaient le transport à longue distance de la voix depuis le milieu du XXe siècle, il a trouvé depuis d'autres applications. Le gros de l'activité concerne la diffusion Le telecomunicazioni satellitari sono una forma di telecomunicazioni wireless a radiofrequenza per la comunicazione a distanza di informazione attraverso collegamenti radio satellitari fra stazioni ricetrasmittenti a terra e satelliti artificiali in orbita sotto forma di ponti radio satellitari, radiodiffusioni, telediffusioni, reti di telecomunicazioni e sistemi di radiolocalizzazione e navigazione. Telekomunikační družice jsou umělé družice (satelity) Země určené pro telekomunikace. Používají se pro šíření televizního vysílání, přenos telefonních hovorů, přenos dat, pro satelitní telefony a další účely. Do kosmu je vynášejí buď raketoplány nebo rakety. Oběžná dráha telekomunikačních družic zavisí na jejich určení; pro televizní vysílání pro individuální uživatele se používají geostacionární dráhy – tzn. že družice se stále vznášejí nad stejným místem, takže signál z nich lze přijímat pevnou parabolickou anténou. Pro satelitní telefony se používají jak geostacionární družice, tak družice na nízké dráze, kterých musí být pro nepřetržité pokrytí několik desítek. Um satélite de comunicação (algumas vezes, abreviado para comsat, na língua inglesa é um satélite artificial para fins de telecomunicações. Os modernos satélites de comunicação usam órbitas geoestacionárias, órbitas Molniya ou baixas órbitas polares. O satélite cria um canal de comunicação entre uma fonte transmissora e outra receptora de rádio em diferentes locais do planeta Terra. Comunicações por satélites são utilizadas para a televisão, telefone, rádio, internet e aplicações militares. Há mais de 2 000 satélites de comunicações em órbita da Terra, usados tanto por organizações privadas quanto por governamentais. Els satèl·lits artificials de comunicacions són un mitjà molt apte per emetre senyals de ràdio en zones àmplies o poc desenvolupades, ja que poden utilitzar-se com enormes antenes suspeses del cel. Atès que no hi ha problema de visió directa es solen utilitzar freqüències elevades en el rang dels GHz que són més immunes a les interferències, a més, l'elevada direccionalitat de les ones a aquestes freqüències permet "donar a llum" zones concretes de la Terra. El primer satèl·lit de comunicacions, el Telstar 1, es va posar en òrbita el 1962. Kommunikationssatelliten (auch Nachrichten- oder Fernmeldesatelliten) sind unbemannte künstliche Satelliten, die die Erde umkreisen und Informations- bzw. Datenübertragung in bestimmten Gebieten der Erdoberfläche ermöglichen. Ihre Umlaufbahnen sind relativ hoch, um weite Gebiete überdecken zu können. Los satélites de comunicaciones son un medio para emitir señales de radio y televisión desde unas zonas de la Tierra hasta otras, ya que se utilizan como enormes antenas suspendidas del cielo. Las frecuencias que manejan son elevadas, en el rango de los GHz. La elevada direccionalidad de las antenas utilizadas permite "alumbrar" zonas concretas de la Tierra. El primer satélite de comunicaciones, el Telstar 1, se puso en órbita el 10 de julio en 1962,​ teniendo lugar la primera transmisión de televisión vía satélite ese mismo año.
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قمر صناعي للاتصالات Satelita telekomunikacyjny Kommunikationssatellit 통신위성 通信衛星 Satèl·lit de comunicacions Супутник зв'язку Komunika satelito Satellite de télécommunications Communications satellite Kommunikationssatellit Telecomunicazioni satellitari 通訊衛星 Satélite de comunicaciones Satelit komunikasi Τηλεπικοινωνιακός δορυφόρος Communicatiesatelliet Telekomunikační družice Satellitenkommunikation Спутник связи Satélite de comunicação
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